The History of Nepal goes back to 55,000 years ago; the first modern humans had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa. The habitat of current Nepal was the perfect land for them to survive, The oldest discovered Archaeological human settlements in Nepal dates around 30,000 years ago when the earliest known human remains in South Asia date around the same time. The evidence of the Indus Valley Civilization was found in Nepal. Which was the first urban culture in South Asia. In the Siwalik Hills of Dang District of Nepal Paleolithic Mesolithic, and Neolithic Origins have been Found. Later many civilizations and groups of people are living in the land of Nepal. Mehrgarh people, Dravidian People, Indo-Aryans People, Kusanda People, Tibeto-Burmese People, Australo-Melanesians People are the few examples of the early humans living in this reasons.
By the Vedic Period, Nepal was being mentioned in various Hindu holy books. The Gopal Bansa was the oldest Dynasty to be mentioned as the earliest rulers of the central Himalayan Kingdom known by the name Nepal. Gopalas were followed by Kiratas who ruled the region for over 16 centuries. Then the Kingdom of Mithila was here which was the home of king Janaka and his Daughter Sita. Their Capital Janakpurdham is still one of the major tourist attractions of Nepal. Then the Buddhism was founded here. The Shakya people played important role in transforming Buddhism to East Asia Via Tibet.
By 250 BC Emperor Ashoka from Mauria Empire visited Lumbini and Erected a Pillar as known as Ashoka Pillar at the Buddha’s Birthplace. The Lumbini Pillar Inscription is probably the starting point of the recorded history of current Nepal. And by the 4th century AD, Gupta Empire ruled Nepal. Then Nepal was ruled by many other Dynasties like Gopals Dynasty and Mahishapales Dynasty. After the Kirats, Lichhavi Dynasty came into power in late 300 AD. One of the Legacies of the Lichhavis is the Changu Narayan Temple (UNESCO-World heritage site) which dates back to the 5th Century. In the late 7th century, the Lichhavi Dynasty went into the decline after Thakuri Dynasty ruled the country. They were here until the 11th Century AD. Not much history known about this period that period is also known as Dark Period. The golden age of Creativity arrived in 1200 AD with the Mallas Dynasty. Mallas are the ones who built the current Durbar Squares of Kathmandu Valley (Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, and Bhaktapur Durbar Square) when they ruled the valley for 550 years. In that time current Nepal was dived into 46 independent Principalities. Among them, the Shah Dynasty was ruling the kingdom of Gorkha.
The ambitious King Prithivi Narayan Shah from the Gorkha Kingdom embarked on a conquering mission to lid defeat all the kingdoms. Prithivi Narayan Shah moved his Capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu valley after successfully conquered 3 kingdoms of Kathmandu valley and established the Shah dynasty which ruled unified Nepal from 1769 to 2008.
After 1800 the rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Company cause a big loss for Nepal. During the war with East India Company Nepal lose 1/3 of the land to them. The Gurkha soldiers fought without guns and advanced weapons. The war War was stopped after the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816. During the Shaha ruling, there was a big dominance inside the place for power. The Thapa and Pandey families had extreme dominance over the Nepalese durbar politics. Then in 1946, the Rana started to rule Nepal. Jung Bahadur Rana was the first Ruler from this Rana Dynasty they ruled the country for 104 Years.
Rana Dynasty was finally replaced after the Revolution of 1951. Then Nepal went to Democracy but the Shah Ruling was still in the power and they forced to follow the Panchayat system in 1960. In 1996 the Maoists started a bid to replace the monarchy with a new People’s Democratic Republic. This is also known as the Nepalese Civil War led by Puspa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) for more than 10 years. In May 2008 the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal as the Federal Democratic Republic, By eliminated the 240 years old Monarchy. Nepal today has the President as the Head of the Country and constitutionally Elected Prime Minister heading the Government.
The Cultural and political revaluation of Nepalese History is Crazy. From the early human civilizations to the Mahabharat War to the Buddha age and Nepal was dominated by different empires and groups of family. There are so many things that are still a mystery and we don’t know about. Researching the Nepalese history in depth could give a new lead.